History It Happened Once

I Googled the Salem Witch Trials so you don’t have to – and they are hella confusing

As a part of our Halloween series this year, since we’ll be mentioning witches a lot, let’s talk about the Salem Witch Trials and how the events that took place do not make any sense.

Honestly, after reading a bunch about the “trials,” I still do not really understand what happened or why it happened. Suggestions about fungus causing illnesses and other analyses on political issues within Salem at the time are speculations that are often used to try to explain the trials. But, you have to admit that there are a bunch of missing pieces in the story. The whole thing sounds like complete chaos to me!

I have so many questions. Like, why did they randomly believe the claims of young girls without any true evidence? Who really thought that allowing spectral evidence was a good idea? How were the accused supposed to prove to a court that they were not actually witches? And lastly, what were the true reasons and motivations behind this tragedy?

So let me explain what all went down in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692 and 1693.  It all began when the daughter and niece of Reverend Samuel Parris, the minister of Salem Village, began having violent fits, intense contortions, and uncontrollable outbursts such as screaming. After a local doctor in Salem could not find anything physically wrong with 9-year-old Elizabeth Parris an 11-year-old Abigail Williams, he diagnosed them and other young girls within the community that showed similar behaviors and symptoms with bewitchment. This first diagnosis of witchcraft led to the imprisonment of over 200 people and 20 hangings throughout Massachusetts.

Puritan pioneers first settled in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630. During this time, the Puritan communities established their own theocratic government systems. Theocracy is a form of government largely led and structured by those who believed to be divinely guided. The government and legal system are structured based on religious law.

You still with me?

The Puritans believed that the Devil could give individuals on Earth powers in return for their loyalty. (and that isn’t even the most ridiculous claim) Those who received powers from the Devil were called witches. The principle of witchcraft became prevalent in 14th century Europe, where between the 1300s and 1600s, thousands of people, the majority being women, were executed for accusations of witchcraft. Under the legal structure in Salem, an individual who consorted with the Devil was considered a criminal. The punishment for committing such a crime was hanging, yikes!

During the time of the Salem Witch Trials, the community was stressed and struggling. The King William’s War put a strain on the community’s resources. Additionally, there was a rivalry between wealthy families and the working class that depended on forms of agriculture. There was also an on-going smallpox epidemic and fear of attack from neighboring Native Americans. The stressful and anxiety-fueled climate of the community led to ongoing tensions and suspicions among the Puritan villagers.

After the diagnosis of bewitchment, a few of the “bewitched” young girls blamed three women for bewitching them. The first is Tituba, an enslaved woman from the Caribbean bought by the Reverend Parris. The second woman was Sarah Good, a homeless beggar.  And lastly, an impoverished elderly woman named Sarah Osborne. Of course, all three of the accused women were considered “outsiders” based on race and/or class. (Is anyone shocked?)

It remains unclear if the girls were persuaded or forced to accuse these three women. However, I think that the social statuses and positions of the women in society should be considered when trying to interpret the potential reasons that these three women in particular were actually accused of the crime of witchcraft.

This is where the whole thing launched full speed into a downward spiral to me. The imprisonment of the three women led to further paranoia in a society that already suffered from numerous stresses. Good and Osborne claimed that they were not guilty; while Tituba confessed and named other witches who were working along with her against the Puritans to receive repentance. In response to Tituba claiming other individuals were also practicing witchcraft, the governor of Massachusetts ordered the establishment of the Court of Oyer and Terminer to pass judgment on witchcraft cases.

The accusations of witchcraft continued to spread across the Massachusetts colonies against mostly women and a few men (which I did not know). Similarly to Tituba, those accused confessed and named others who practiced witchcraft. The court allowed testimony based on spectral evidence. This refers to evidence that is based on visions, dreams, and a person’s spirit. The testimony was based on witnesses claiming that they interacted with or saw a person’s spirit, in place of basing testimony on a person’s physical actions. The trails lacked focus on truth and investigation. Under religious practices, the courts preferred that the accused confessed, asked for forgiveness, and vowed to not engage with the Devil again.

After years and the (unlawful) deaths and imprisonment of so many people, the Court of Oyer and Terminer was finally replaced with the Superior Court of Judicature, the testimony of spectral evidence was no longer allowed, and the trials were deemed unlawful. In 1697, the General Court ordered a day of fasting and soul-searching due to the events that had occurred during the trials. Additionally, in 1711, the families affected received reinstitution and the restoration of the names. However, it was not until the 1950s that Massachusetts formally apologized for the event.

The whole story is definitely a lot to digest, but it did give me a lot to think about.

While many aspects of the Salem Witch Trails are perplexing, within this tragedy remains lessons that should be reflected on and questioned today. It remains crucial to have objectivity, to think about the consequences of unjustly punishing individuals, to be cautious of the use of fear within the justice system, and to foresee the damages of groupthink going unquestioned.

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Pop Culture

James Franco made the cringe-worthy decision to attend the SAG Awards, because of course he did

Women everywhere shook their heads and rolled their eyes after James Franco dismissed the sexual assault allegations against him during an interview on The Late Show with Stephen Colbert. Although he’s recently been accused of several instances of sexual misconduct, including preying on underage girls, he believes he’s totally in the clear because “the things [he] heard on Twitter were not accurate.” Disgustingly enough, in the same interview, Franco insisted that he “doesn’t want to shut down” anyone, and wants to make sure everyone has a voice.

He might as well have said, “I support sexual assault victims coming out, as long as they don’t accuse me of anything.” He made it clear in the interview that he doesn’t care about women or sexual abuse. His dismissal of the accusations also shows that his supposed support of Time’s Up is only a publicity stunt, and not a movement he is actually passionate about.

[bctt tweet= “He made it clear in the interview that he doesn’t care about women or sexual abuse.” username=“wearethetempest”]

Fast-forward to the 2018 SAG Awards and the world saw James Franco waving his white, straight, male privilege like a flag when he brazenly attended the event, despite being fully aware that the event, like many recent entertainment award ceremonies, would foster discussions around Time’s Up, #MeToo, and women’s empowerment.  He had the audacity to show up to a space where he was absolutely not wanted, thereby putting his own self-proclaimed innocence over the safety and solidarity of all the women at the SAG Awards who have been assaulted or harassed.

In another trash move, Franco reportedly skipped out on walking the red carpet and did not give any interviews that night. He didn’t want to get roasted by reporters. Instead, he wanted to have his cake and eat it too by avoiding taking responsibility for his actions while enjoying the awards ceremony.

I was infuriated when I learned about the way he handled the accusations against him, but I was nauseated at his decision to show up to the SAG Awards with zero shame. Infringing on this space was a smack in the face to his victims as well as all the women at the event. His decision to attend reeks of self-righteousness and the type of clueless confidence only white men seem to possess. It speaks volumes about the privilege white men are guaranteed: not only did Franco assert his own innocence on television after multiple sources came out against him, but he also lacked the shame or social awareness to stay away from an event that addressed ending sexual abuse and the intimidation of victims.

[bctt tweet= “He has the luxury of finding his accusers’ accounts more inconvenient than threatening.” username=“wearethetempest”]

He simultaneously absolved himself of any wrongdoing and unabashedly barged into the SAG Awards because he has the privilege of not caring about women or sexual assault.

He has the luxury of finding his accusers’ accounts to be more inconvenient than threatening.

He has the option of hiding out from the press to avoid making himself look like an even bigger predator.

He has peace of mind knowing that other white men in the industry will probably back him up, since actors such as Liam Neeson have publicly called the #MeToo movement a witch hunt.

He can go about his life without reliving any trauma, but I doubt his victims can say the same.

Thankfully, he’s already been called out. Scarlett Johansson ripped into Franco during the Los Angeles Women’s March, demanding, “How could a person publicly stand by an organization that helps to provide support for victims of sexual assault while privately preying on people who have no power?”

Because straight white men rarely have to care about the consequences of their actions. They are almost never forced to evaluate the pain they cause others, particularly women. They don a Time’s Up pin fully aware of their past behavior because they know they can always call their victims liars later on, if confronted.

[bctt tweet= “Straight white men rarely have to care about the consequences of their actions.” username=“wearethetempest”]

We must continue to call out men’s hypocrisy and blatant mistreatment of women. We must also keep examining how white privilege enables so many of these men to avoid or diminish any repercussions from their predatory actions.