History It Happened Once

I Googled the Salem Witch Trials so you don’t have to – and they are hella confusing

As a part of our Halloween series this year, since we’ll be mentioning witches a lot, let’s talk about the Salem Witch Trials and how the events that took place do not make any sense.

Honestly, after reading a bunch about the “trials,” I still do not really understand what happened or why it happened. Suggestions about fungus causing illnesses and other analyses on political issues within Salem at the time are speculations that are often used to try to explain the trials. But, you have to admit that there are a bunch of missing pieces in the story. The whole thing sounds like complete chaos to me!

I have so many questions. Like, why did they randomly believe the claims of young girls without any true evidence? Who really thought that allowing spectral evidence was a good idea? How were the accused supposed to prove to a court that they were not actually witches? And lastly, what were the true reasons and motivations behind this tragedy?

So let me explain what all went down in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692 and 1693.  It all began when the daughter and niece of Reverend Samuel Parris, the minister of Salem Village, began having violent fits, intense contortions, and uncontrollable outbursts such as screaming. After a local doctor in Salem could not find anything physically wrong with 9-year-old Elizabeth Parris an 11-year-old Abigail Williams, he diagnosed them and other young girls within the community that showed similar behaviors and symptoms with bewitchment. This first diagnosis of witchcraft led to the imprisonment of over 200 people and 20 hangings throughout Massachusetts.

Puritan pioneers first settled in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630. During this time, the Puritan communities established their own theocratic government systems. Theocracy is a form of government largely led and structured by those who believed to be divinely guided. The government and legal system are structured based on religious law.

You still with me?

The Puritans believed that the Devil could give individuals on Earth powers in return for their loyalty. (and that isn’t even the most ridiculous claim) Those who received powers from the Devil were called witches. The principle of witchcraft became prevalent in 14th century Europe, where between the 1300s and 1600s, thousands of people, the majority being women, were executed for accusations of witchcraft. Under the legal structure in Salem, an individual who consorted with the Devil was considered a criminal. The punishment for committing such a crime was hanging, yikes!

During the time of the Salem Witch Trials, the community was stressed and struggling. The King William’s War put a strain on the community’s resources. Additionally, there was a rivalry between wealthy families and the working class that depended on forms of agriculture. There was also an on-going smallpox epidemic and fear of attack from neighboring Native Americans. The stressful and anxiety-fueled climate of the community led to ongoing tensions and suspicions among the Puritan villagers.

After the diagnosis of bewitchment, a few of the “bewitched” young girls blamed three women for bewitching them. The first is Tituba, an enslaved woman from the Caribbean bought by the Reverend Parris. The second woman was Sarah Good, a homeless beggar.  And lastly, an impoverished elderly woman named Sarah Osborne. Of course, all three of the accused women were considered “outsiders” based on race and/or class. (Is anyone shocked?)

It remains unclear if the girls were persuaded or forced to accuse these three women. However, I think that the social statuses and positions of the women in society should be considered when trying to interpret the potential reasons that these three women in particular were actually accused of the crime of witchcraft.

This is where the whole thing launched full speed into a downward spiral to me. The imprisonment of the three women led to further paranoia in a society that already suffered from numerous stresses. Good and Osborne claimed that they were not guilty; while Tituba confessed and named other witches who were working along with her against the Puritans to receive repentance. In response to Tituba claiming other individuals were also practicing witchcraft, the governor of Massachusetts ordered the establishment of the Court of Oyer and Terminer to pass judgment on witchcraft cases.

The accusations of witchcraft continued to spread across the Massachusetts colonies against mostly women and a few men (which I did not know). Similarly to Tituba, those accused confessed and named others who practiced witchcraft. The court allowed testimony based on spectral evidence. This refers to evidence that is based on visions, dreams, and a person’s spirit. The testimony was based on witnesses claiming that they interacted with or saw a person’s spirit, in place of basing testimony on a person’s physical actions. The trails lacked focus on truth and investigation. Under religious practices, the courts preferred that the accused confessed, asked for forgiveness, and vowed to not engage with the Devil again.

After years and the (unlawful) deaths and imprisonment of so many people, the Court of Oyer and Terminer was finally replaced with the Superior Court of Judicature, the testimony of spectral evidence was no longer allowed, and the trials were deemed unlawful. In 1697, the General Court ordered a day of fasting and soul-searching due to the events that had occurred during the trials. Additionally, in 1711, the families affected received reinstitution and the restoration of the names. However, it was not until the 1950s that Massachusetts formally apologized for the event.

The whole story is definitely a lot to digest, but it did give me a lot to think about.

While many aspects of the Salem Witch Trails are perplexing, within this tragedy remains lessons that should be reflected on and questioned today. It remains crucial to have objectivity, to think about the consequences of unjustly punishing individuals, to be cautious of the use of fear within the justice system, and to foresee the damages of groupthink going unquestioned.

Get The Tempest in your inbox. Read more exclusives like this in our weekly newsletter!

Books Pop Culture

Four awesome books to read before they hit the big screen

It seems that ever since the box office success of The Hunger Games series, more and more books are making it to the big screen. Here are four books becoming 2015 movies in upcoming months. Are we missing any? Let us know!

1. Mockingjay – Part Two

Mocking Jay Cover

I’m not the biggest fan of the last book in the Hunger Games series, Mockingjay, but I do think the movies have done a decent job of keeping the story interesting. In this movie, which is being released on November 20, 2015, Katniss continues to rebel against the Capitol and fight for the freedom of her people. I’m really wondering if the movie will stay true to the ending of the book series, which made some people quite unhappy.


2. Paper Towns


Last year, John Green’s The Fault in Our Stars  was released on the big screen and was highly successful. This year, another book of his, Paper Towns, is being released in theaters. I can only hope that this movie does not make me cry as much as The Fault in Our Stars did — to be safe, I will definitely be bringing a box of tissues with me to the theater. This film is set to be released on June 19 and is starring Cara Delevingne (yes, the beautiful English model) and Nat Wolff.

3. Me and Earl and the Dying Girl


As the title of Me and Earl and the Dying Girl indicates, this movie will not be an entirely happy one. It’s a cancer story but it is also supposed to be quite humorous. The narrator of this book, Greg, has an incredibly authentic voice and is supposed to be pretty awkward as he befriends a girl diagnosed with leukemia — Rachel. Based on the trailer, the casting team did a great job — because Thomas Mann and Olivia Cooke are the perfect Greg and Rachel.

4. The Scorch Trials


The Maze Runner book series by James Dashner is immensely popular and I was super pumped when it was turned into a movie last year. The Scorch Trials continues where the last movie ended and Thomas + the rest of the Gladers have finally figured out the way out of the Maze. Now, they find themselves in an entirely new situation and have to pass a series of trials. This movie is being released on September 18 and is starring much of the original cast with a few new members.


I am so excited to watch all of these 2015 films and I hope that in 2016, even more YA books are turned into movies. I know some people are wary of their favorite books being turned into movies, but I actually usually like seeing the different twists movie directors take on the original plots. Also, whenever books are turned into movies, publishing companies usually see an increase in sales of that particular book, which is great for the overall book industry.