Education Now + Beyond

Simul-teaching isn’t the future of education, yet

My sister’s school sent out surveys asking parents for their opinions on restarting regular schools after the summer vacation. Some of the possible solutions that the school suggested seemed a little absurd; two cycles during the school day, a reduced number of working days during the week, socially distanced classrooms with simultaneous video conferencing (simul-teaching). It had me wondering: How far can technology take us to give us a sense of normalcy? What will be the cost of creating a new normal in the field of education?

In my opinion, distance learning cannot completely replace regular schooling. The lack of collaboration and socialization is evident in the use of technology. It also requires students to practice self-discipline that many may not possess. In some regions, schools also serve to combat social problems, like poverty, child marriage, and abuse. Distance learning has left many of these communities vulnerable. We need a new system that can implement social distancing while combating the drawbacks of distance learning. 

The solution seems to be a combination of distance learning with regular classroom interaction.

However, switching to a new normal with new alternatives is challenging for teachers, instructors, and educational professionals. They’ve worked day and night to adjust to new teaching conditions and new technology, providing mental support and relief to students in need. 

They face a new obstacle: Attempting to create a combination of two environments that prove to be effective and beneficial. Though simul-teaching may seem like an attractive option, how will it be implemented? What sort of activities will be needed to engage the physical and virtual audience at the same time? How much training will the teachers need to deliver good quality education? What new technology will need to be introduced to manage both audiences adequately?

Assessments have proved to be challenging in a distanced environment. At my university, professors used a combination of three to four different software to assess our progress, as opposed to a single practical or written session before the pandemic. With simul-teaching, different methodologies will be needed to evaluate and appraise students’ learning. How will group activities be implemented online and physically at the same time? What will be the integrity of such varied evaluations?

Even if schools plan to implement two school cycles during the day with fewer students or reduce the number of working days, the workload on teachers will be immense. To constantly shift their perspective and teaching from virtual to in-person can be hectic. 

This system will also hinder the learning process for children with learning disabilities. How will a teacher or instructor compensate for the lack of physical presence that some students require? How will they ensure that their students adapt to different modes of teaching?

We are also overlooking the costs. In addition to the existing electricity, sanitation, and maintenance cost, there is a new set of requirements for a stable network connection, video conferencing services, and assistive technology. Simul-teaching is beneficial to technologically-equipped communities. But for communities that lack access to services that enable a modern learning environment, the students will be left behind, reinforcing the gap between the haves and have-nots.

The purpose of education is to lift ourselves out of ignorance and provide learning opportunities for everyone. If the simul-teaching environment reinforces inequality and creates an impossible environment to grow in, what is its purpose?

This pandemic has taught us a lot of things, but education systems worldwide do not realize that things need to change to adapt to these problems. Why are we struggling to bring back the same old institutions when everything else has changed? Why are we enforcing a system that takes teachers to their wit’s ends? Why are we so obsessed with reproducing the same capitalist structure that barely benefits us? 

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USA Politics The World Policy

Here’s why your right to bear arms means nothing to me

Trigger Warnings: Gun violence, Death.

In the United States, the mass shooting crisis continues to increase at an alarming rate. While many of us believed the pandemic had put a pause on shootings, The New York Times reports “the shootings never stopped”, “they just weren’t as public.” In 2020, there were 600 mass shootings, compared to 417 in 2019. And, only four months into 2021, 157 mass shootings have occurred. This averages out to be more than one mass shooting a day.

The Gun Violence Archive defines mass shootings as four or more people injured or killed, not including the perpetrator. The FBI defines mass murderers as people who have killed four or more people in a single incident at a single location. In 2017, the U.S comprised only 5% of the world’s population and yet experienced 31% of the world’s mass shootings. In addition, gun violence kills an estimated 30,000 people each year.

Mass shootings are not a new occurrence in the U.S. One of the first mass shootings was in 1949 when Howard Unruh murdered 13 people and wounded three more in what has become known as his 20-minute “Walk of Death.” In recent weeks, mass shootings have resulted in eight people (six Asian and Asian American women) killed in Atlanta, ten people killed in Boulder, and eight people (four Sikh people) killed in Indianapolis.

These hate crimes and targeted attacks against people of color aren’t a new occurrence either. In fact, how the U.S. continues to uphold white supremacy and bigotry has further fanned the flames of the mass shooting crisis. I would argue the roots of this crisis date back to the inception of the U.S. In 1524, a string of bloody clashes between the Pilgrims and the indigenous Wampanoag set the tone for how future Americans would handle “disputes.” To this day, we celebrate Thanksgiving, a holiday that came about after early English settlers killed thousands of Native people during King Philip’s War (1675-76).

Fast forward to the 21st century, and the U.S. continues to use violence and war as a solution. This has led the U.S. to prioritize its military—the U.S. is the top military spender in the world—over its people, creating a legacy of unchecked violence that continues with mass shootings.

As a country, we should never become desensitized to the loss of human life. This is a simple concept for many who have taken it upon themselves to protest women’s rights and legal abortion—but the same presence cannot be seen lining up to advocate for the children who have been brutally murdered by mass shooters in schools like Columbine, Sandy Hook, Marjory Stoneman Douglas, and so many more. What’s even more frustrating is that many of the perpetrators of mass shootings are arrested peacefully, while Black and brown people of all ages are murdered by law enforcement every day for reasons flimsy in rationale but solid in systematic racism.

It’s also hard to watch other countries quickly mobilize to protect their citizens. Immediately after the Christchurch mosque massacre that killed 50 people in 2019, New Zealand voted unanimously to ban military-style semi-automatic weapons. In the ’90s, Australia cut the total of its gun deaths in half after implementing a buyback program that purchased and destroyed 600,000+ automatic and semiautomatic weapons.

In Canada, a 2020 mass shooting in Nova Scotia, which killed 22 people, led Prime Minister Trudeau to ban 1,500+ makes and models of military-style assault weapons. In addition, the federal government introduced “red flag” laws, established new firearm offenses, and encouraged municipalities to ban handguns through local bylaws. A buyback program is also in the works. Japan has strict laws for obtaining firearms, which include mandatory classes, passing a written test, and achieving at least 95% accuracy on a shooting-range assessment. Citizens also have to pass a background check and mental-health evaluation at a hospital.

The United States should have rushed to implement similar legislation after the 2017 Las Vegas shooting that killed 58 people, or the 2016 Pulse massacre that killed 49 people, or the 2007 Virginia Tech shooting that killed 32 people. Instead, the U.S. has chosen to cross its arms over its chest like a petulant child and double down on the Second Amendment. Many pro-gun advocates cite the Second Amendment, which outlines the people’s right to keep and bear arms, as reason enough to block any gun reform. Varying interpretations of the Second Amendment have been one of the major obstacles in passing new gun regulations.

In 2021, President Biden began to take a firmer stance on gun control by directing the Justice Department to stop the spread of ghost guns. He also urged Congress to ban assault weapons and high-capacity magazines, pass “red flag” legislation, and support violence-intervention programs. It will be interesting to see whether Congress passes this legislation. But I’m not holding my breath.

Guns have become nuclear to American identity, and I’m tired of it. History is supposed to educate us on how society should evolve. Just because something has been a certain way for so long, doesn’t mean it should remain that way, especially when there are so many flaws in the system. U.S. government leaders need to be writing, pushing, and passing gun reform and bans—especially if they believe in truly serving the people of the United States.

People are dying. Is the right to bear arms more important to you than human life? I can already hear the responsible gun owners starting to speak, but we’ve all heard you speak ad nauseam, and I’m done.

If you’re really a responsible gun owner then surely, you’ll have realized that something has got to give at this point. Surely the responsible thing to do is remove guns from the equation—because nothing else we’ve done thus far has protected people.


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History Historical Badasses

Savitribai Phule was the feminist teacher from the 1850s we wish we had in high school

Because of British colonization, women’s rights were nonexistent in 19th century India; women were largely confined to domestic roles and were not allowed to receive an education. Despite such patriarchal restrictions, Savitribai Phule, an Indian teacher, and feminist, established the first school for girls in India in 1848 with the help of her husband, Jyotirao Phule. Savitribai’s trailblazing in women’s education is a testament to the resilience of feminists. 

Like most other married Indian women, Savitribai was not literate at the time of her marriage at age nine. After being educated by her husband and his friends, Savitribai enrolled herself in training programs for teachers at two institutions, the Normal School and an institution in Ahmednagar. 

Later, she began to teach alongside Sagunabai, another revolutionary Indian feminist. Eventually, the Bhides and Sagunabai founded their own school at Bhide Wada, the home of Tatya Saheb Bhide, a man who was inspired by the work of the trio. 

During this time, education was limited to male Brahmins (a caste) and involved the teachings of the Vedas and Shastras. Savitribai’s school was unique in that it taught mathematics, science, and social studies instead of Hindu texts. It was also open to people of all castes, including women. 

However, not everyone supported Savitribai’s endeavors; Savitribai would carry an extra sari with her to school because people would hurl stones and dirt at her while she was walking. By educating people of lower castes and women, Savitribai was radically changing the status quo. Knowledge is power, so her work empowered hundreds of people from historically marginalized communities in India. 

After being kicked out of their house by her husband’s father for their work in the community, the Phules lived with Usman Sheikh and his sister, Fatima Sheikh. Fatima is known as the first Muslim female teacher of India and opened a school alongside Savitribai. Their friendship exemplified feminist sisterhood and empowerment. 

Outside of her educational accomplishments, Savitribai was also a staunch feminist and poet. She authored two notable collections of poetry, Kavya Phule in 1854 and Bavan Kashi Subodh Ratnakar in 1892. Through her writing, she was able to encourage people from marginalized communities to break free from the chains of oppression by getting an education. 

Later, she founded multiple organizations to raise awareness for women’s rights, infanticide, and caste-based violence. The Mahila Seva Mandal forged gatherings between women of all castes and encouraged all of the women to sit together on the same mat. In her house, she created the House for the Prevention of Infanticide as a safe space for widowed Brahmin women to deliver their babies and leave them there under her care. At the same time, she campaigned against child marriage and lobbied for widow remarriage. 

After her husband’s death, Savitribai chaired a session for the Satyashodhak Samaj, an organization that serves the interests of non-Brahmins. At this time, a woman chairing an organization was unprecedented and revolutionary. Through these efforts, Savitribai also initiated the first Satyashodkah marriage, which is a marriage without a dowry, Brahmin priests, or Brahminical rituals. 

Savitribai also founded a clinic to take care of patients with the bubonic plague. She passed away in 1897 while taking care of a patient with the bubonic plague in the clinic. While she passed away more than a century ago, her legacy is honored annually in Maharastra on January 3rd, known as Balika Din (Day of Girls). 

Balika Din is a holiday dedicated to educating people about legislation that protects young girls and is dedicated to the welfare of young girls in India. Women are still actively discriminated against in India through sexual assault, sex-selective abortions, and patriarchal gender roles. Savitribai’s work was the first step towards promoting gender equality in modern India. 

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History Education

It is high time Shakespeare is written off as a relic of the past

“She hangs upon the cheek of night Like a rich jewel in an Ethiope’s ear” one of my high school students, playing Romeo read out. 

“Miss, isn’t that racist? Referring to the color of someone’s skin and making a metaphor out of it?” Interrupted another student. 

“Well, any piece of literature is a product of its time. And racist sentiments were very common during the colonial era.” I snapped back, partly embarrassed at my shallow save. 

“But if it’s so outdated, why are we still studying it over 300 years later?” He responded.

And there it was. The ultimate question, to which I really had no answer. My Generation Z students somehow had more political correctness than the board which set the curriculum. In light of all our Anglomania as a post-colonial society, Shakespeare continues to dominate most secondary school curriculums. And somehow, as educators, we must salvage some of this “great” playwright’s legacy, by defending his racism and sexism, which can be extremely offensive to modern-day sensibilities. 

Flipping through the pages of The Merchant of Venice, the depiction of Shylock as a stone-hearted usurer is disconcerting. Shakespeare picks up on the stereotype of Jews as being greedy and practically villainizes the entire Jewish community of the time by pitting it against Bassanio and Portia’s love story. 

Race and morality appear inextricably linked in Shakespeare’s works. Portia, when discussing her prospective suitors, claims that “If he have the complexion of a devil, I had rather he should shrive me than wive me.” As Portia is presented with the proposal of a Moroccan, she immediately turns it down on the basis of his skin tone. The idea of one’s skin color as an indication of their moral aptitude was what British colonialists thrived upon. This is precisely what allowed them to spread “enlightenment” and Christianity in the “dark continent” of Africa. 

This absurd idea is taken further in Othello. The character of Othello, himself, described as ‘the dark moor’, with ‘thick lips’ is said to resemble ‘the devil’, simply because of his complexion. 

Attribution: [Image Description: Laurence Fishburne in the title role of Othello, with Kenneth Branagh (right) as Iago, 1995.] via Castle Rock Entertainment
As you read through work after work, it becomes apparent that this is no coincidence. This is Shakespeare’s world view: devoid of diversity and nuance. It is one that exalts white Christian men and creates savages and murderous brutes out of people of color. 

If Shakespeare’s internalized racial prejudice is bothering you, wait till we talk about the blatant sexism in his works. Hamlet famously claimed: “Frailty thy name is a woman.” I remember while studying Hamlet in my sophomore year of college, many were very outraged by this statement. How can you read and respect a writer who basically undermines the intelligence of your entire gender? But then I also remember when a question was raised about his not so subtle sexism, our professor wrote it off as being Hamlet’s words and not Shakespeare’s. We must not conflate the two, we were told. 

But if it was just Hamlet who thinks of women as the epitome of weakness, why is it that this theme of fragile and hysterical women appears in many more of his works? In Macbeth, for instance, an otherwise ambitious man is led astray by his wife’s greed. Shakespeare continually emphasizes the superior moral ground of his own heroes. They are moral compasses for the women in their lives. It is as if he was trying to say: women, by their very nature, are fallible and when they transgress, they must be punished. Such is the case for Taming of the Shrew which basically glorifies domestic violence.  

Living in a society where people are still recovering from a post-colonial complex, Shakespeare is not just a playwright or an artist. He is deified into a god-like figure. He is an institution, a larger than life phenomenon. He is considered as the epitome of civilization, intellectual prowess, and spiritual superiority. At least, this is how he was institutionalized by the former colonizers in order to dominate their subjects. 

Today, Shakespeare is celebrated for his supposed universality. But how can we call him universal when, in fact, most of his writing, much like other Western Canonical texts, is about royalty and the aristocracy? He only ever wrote about higher mortals. And when these grand, inaccessible tales are told to us, we take it all unflinchingly, without a grain of salt. We don’t question it because it is not relatable.

Our own sense of inferiority prevents us from ever probing how problematic it really is. 

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Sexuality The Vulvasation Love + Sex Love

I can’t have sex. Here’s what it’s like

Vulvasations is a Tempest Love exclusive series dedicated to spreading awareness about the female reproductive system, debunking myths about periods and dissecting everything vajayjay related. Let’s talk about vaginas!

I was twelve when I first heard the word “hymen” in a sexual education class. It was advertised as a “vaginal cloak” that would be broken the first time a girl would have sex.

I’m from Texas and therefore received abstinence-only sex education. Virginity was a woman’s virtue and a ~prized possession~. 

Personally, I never bought into the idealization of virginity because sex was always irrelevant to me. I wasn’t waiting until marriage, but I wasn’t planning on doing it in high school either. Little did I know that not only did I not want to have sex, I biologically couldn’t have it.

I was confident in my decision to not have sex until I found out that it was never my decision; my body had already decided for me. 

I realized that my body was averse to any form of penetration.

I could never use a tampon or handle any form of penetration without excruciating pain. It was almost as if my vaginal muscles would slam shut at the thought of it. I chalked it up to being nervous and spoke to my doctor about it.

For years, she told me that I was probably just nervous and should opt for thinner tampons. Despite using the thinnest tampons on the market, I still couldn’t get them in. 

Eventually, I realized that my body was averse to any form of penetration, not just tampons, so there had to be another reason for my pain. Finally, my doctor confirmed that this was abnormal and referred me to a gynecologist this summer.

When I first realized how severe my problem was, I thought it was vaginismus (an involuntary spasming of the vaginal muscles in response to a fear of penetration).

I refused to leave my room for three days and mentally spiraled while trying to figure out how I was going to cope with the idea of never being able to have pain-free sex.

Going to a gynecologist at a young age only exacerbated this as I did not like being poked and prodded by a doctor, especially vaginally. After a painful gynecological exam, I was diagnosed with a hymenal abnormality (microperforate hymen).

I had a lot of abnormally thick tissue covering my vaginal opening with an opening about the size of a sesame seed for menstrual blood to come out of (nothing could go in). Surgery (hymenectomy) was my only option to remove the tissue.  

Eventually, I underwent the surgery and was fortunate enough to receive a hormonal IUD at the same time. While my recovery was gruesome, I was optimistic about finally being able to use tampons and have a normal sex life. Unfortunately, I was in over my head. I felt like I was being cut in half during my gynecological follow-up appointment.

The severed nerve endings from the incision site were angered by the surgery, so penetration was still unbearably painful. She suggested that I start vaginal dilator therapy to condition my vagina to relax and habituate to the sensation of penetration. While dilators are tube-shaped medical devices that increase in size, my body perceives them as giant wooden stakes.

The only thing more painful than having to undergo vaginal surgery and dilator therapy was having to explain all of it to my conservative, Indian mother.

Sexual health is still taboo in India, especially for unmarried women. Often, society treats the vagina as a holy space that should not be entered until marriage by a woman’s husband.

My mother had never heard of a dilator and was traumatized after hearing about what she interpreted as “medically-prescribed masturbation”. Thankfully, she is more progressive than most Indian mothers and was somewhat supportive of my surgery because it was medically-necessitated.

Currently, I am three months post-operation and I am still working on dilation. While I cannot have painless sex yet, I have worked my way to the 4th dilator out of 8. This is tremendous progress for my body considering that I couldn’t handle a finger 2 months ago.

I have been able to use marijuana extract (CBD) formulated for sexual use to subdue my vaginal and vulvar nerve endings into relaxing enough to allow for certain forms of penetration, or as my friends like to say, I get my vagina high with vagina weed

While my vaginal journey has been traumatizing, it’s also forced me to confront a culturally tabooed part of my body. Prior to surgery, I couldn’t even say the word “vagina” without blushing.

Here I am now, telling the whole world how I get mine stoned every night. 

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USA Action Guide The World

Here’s what you need to know about the land back movement this Indigenous Day

For those of you, like me, who don’t live in the United States, here’s the background: Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer and navigator. In 1492, he arrived on the shores of what is now known as Puerto Rico where he was met by the Taino people.

Columbus recognized the prestige which he and his people had been given and took advantage of it. He kidnapped many people from the native tribe and sent them back to Europe to work as slaves. This began a period in history in which many people such as the Danish, British, French, and Spanish would stake their claim to the American continent through genocide, slavery, and colonialization. The Indigenous people who lived there suffered starvation, massacres, attempted assimilation, and abject poverty for most of their lives due to the inhumane treatment by these colonizing forces for so-called ‘development’.

So, fast forward and now we are in 2020. While the world is gripped in a pandemic, the USA has begun to unravel its history with race and society. From the Black Lives Matter protests to the handling of the pandemic by Donald Trump, the USA is finally realizing that there are serious problems within the foundation of its society. Representative Deb Haaland from New Mexico has put forward a bill named ‘The Truth and Healing Commission on Indian Boarding School Policy in the United States Act’. This is an effort to bring attention to the impact of the Boarding School system on Indigenous Communities in North America, and would be a historical bill that will finally force people to see the damage of America’s roots as opposed to complacency.

One of the largest movements currently is the 1492 Land Back Movement. The movement is advocating for the US government to return Indigenous land back to its rightful owners (owners is used as a very loose term as many people believe that one can never own the land as it is not anyone’s to own) especially those of sacred and historical significance. This movement has already begun to set precedents; the return of 3 million acres of land equating to half of Oklahoma was returned to the Muscogee (Creek) Nation. This was a historic decision as the area also includes Tulsa, Oklahoma’s second-biggest city. In July 2020, the Esselen tribe of Northern California gained back 1,200 acres of land in yet another historical case.

It’s not a coincidence that this is happening. The people are finally standing up for their rights and beliefs like we have seen so many do before them. Looking back to this past 4th of July when the people of the Lakota Sioux stood in defiance of the President and protected the Black Hills from him and his supporters.

My people are still struggling with freedom. We are split across three states because of colonialization, with the Kohinoor diamond in Queen Elizabeth II’s crown.

Even though great strides have been made, there is a lot of work that has yet to be done. The Black Hills are still under the control of the US Government; a direct violation of the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, and of the Supreme Court ruling in 1980.

So here’s what you can do to help:

Sign petitions:

This one focuses specifically on the return of the Black Hills.

Educate yourself!

It wasn’t until I completed my undergraduate degree that I realized how colonized my education was. So, I read as much as I could. I shared these books and articles with as many people as possible. Authors of color provide invaluable information that you can’t receive from white sources.

Share your resources!

I pass whatever I read to the people around me because everyone deserves access to this information. Like so many of us did during the peak of the BLM movement, it is time we read up Indigenous history. We can only be allies and supporters if we learn. So many of us outside of the US and Canada were not even aware that this was happening.

Donate to bailfunds!

I understand that this is not feasible for everyone but any steps you can take is enough:

O’odham water and land defenders arrested while halting border wall construction which was threatening sacred site.

NDN collective announces Black Hills bail and legal defense  fund following Mt. Rushmore arrests. 

There’s always something more we can learn about others. I am a firm believer that you cannot expect people to understand you if you aren’t willing to do the same. 2020 has been one of the most awful years, but its also been a year of amazing things.

Let’s make it the year to make a big movement towards decolonization.

Policy Inequality

For true educational equity, we need dual language programs

My first language is Bangla. As a child, who had just immigrated to the United States, I struggled to acquire English as my second language. My younger brother had it worse. To the point where his kindergarten teacher, who was monolingual and not trained in bilingual education, sent a note home to our parents expressing her concern that my brother might have a learning disability.

My parents, as immigrants from a developing country who began a life in America so their children could have access to more opportunities for success, took my brother to the doctor feeling anxious and uneasy. The doctor assured them he’s fine – as a five-year-old bilingual child, it was completely natural for him to mix up his languages. The doctor also strongly advised my parents to keep speaking Bangla at home, so we don’t lose our bilingual ability. The problem was, my brother’s teacher didn’t understand any of this before sending that note home.

English-only approach to education is regressive and disadvantageous to students of color, especially students who are immigrants or children of immigrants.

I know people who have lost the ability to speak their mother tongues because their teachers were concerned that they would never learn English properly if they kept speaking another language. A friend of mine had a doctor who told her parents the opposite of what my brother’s doctor told my parents.

This English-only (standard English-only, really) approach to education is regressive and disadvantageous to students of color, especially students who are immigrants or children of immigrants. Studies show, like this one from the American Councils Research Center, that dual language programs afford students incredible “educational gains.” Dual language classrooms usually consist of half non-native English speakers and half native English speakers; everything is taught in two languages – usually English and the language of the non-native English speakers.

These dual language programs allow all students, both non-native and native English speakers, to develop bilingualism and biliteracy at high levels of proficiency in both languages. Imagine a Spanish-speaking student who is still at the early stages of learning English being able to take an exam in their own language and excelling, rather than being forced to take the exam in English and risk failing, simply because they didn’t understand the language. Dual language programs enable students to be tested on their own merit and abilities, rather than measuring them up against an unfair standard and system designed to set them up for failure. These programs are a matter of educational equity.

In 1968, the Bilingual Education Act was passed. This act provided federal funding to school districts to create bilingual education programs. However, resistance to this act began in the seventies and eighties as the rate of immigration from non-European countries increased. Proposition 227, led by Robert Unz, was passed in California in 1998 and it effectively mandated English-only programs. Eventually, Arizona and Massachusetts passed similar bills in the years following. These three states comprise 40 percent of the students who are in need of dual language programs. The largest protests against this act happened in California, staged by Latinx students.

English-only ideologies come from an Americanization movement that has persisted in the US since the 19th century. Americanization is what led to the extinction and near extinction of most Indigenous languages in this country. The goal of the boarding schools that forcefully assimilated Native Americans into white America was to eradicate the Indigenous identity.

Similarly, the goals of English-only programs we see today come from racist and anti-immigrant ideologies. Proponents of these programs, like educational leader Kevin Clark, argue that English language proficiency will ensure students success and that bilingualism is detrimental to gaining proficiency in English – but there is no evidence of this. Applied linguistic experts such as Stephen Krashen and Kellie Rolstad have done numerous studies on the academic benefits of multilingualism.

Currently, 35 states in the US offer dual language education programs, but these programs are not state mandated, so only selected school districts offer them. It is most definitely not enough to cover the needs of all students. California repealed Proposition 227 just four years ago in 2016, and Massachusetts did the same in 2017. Arizona has yet to repeal the proposition.

Americanization is a xenophobic ideology that aims to rid America of difference and diversity

A study by the American Federation of Teachers in 2014 found that 60 percent of emergent bilinguals are educated in English-only programs. These programs entail taking students out of normal classes for up to four hours a day and making them take what are essentially ESL classes. This means they miss out on normal class material and lectures and get less time with their teachers.

This is also a practice of educational segregation in which native English speakers and non-native English speakers are pitted against each other. Furthermore, teachers and staff are poorly trained to understand bilingualism and bilingual education. If my brother’s kindergarten teacher was able to convince my parents he had a learning disability, my brother would have been put in separate classes to address a nonexistent disability. This is the story of many non-native English speakers and bilingual students.

All these studies and statistics aside, the fact remains that the attitude toward emergent bilingual students is hostile, anti-immigrant, and racist. Americanization is a xenophobic ideology that aims to rid America of difference and diversity. Brown and Black students are systemically disadvantaged in schools – that means this is intentional. Couple this with the fact that most emergent bilingual students also come from lower socio-economic backgrounds, and we begin to see the connections in the overall infrastructure of America that keep Brown and Black students from achieve their potentials. Dual language programs are a matter of educational equity – something that affects students for their entire lives. They are bilingual students’ best chance for success and opportunity.

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Education Now + Beyond

Five life-changing tips for online classes no one’s telling you about

In a regular year, now would be the time for back-to-school sales, moving into dorm rooms or new apartments, and wondering where the summer has gone. 2020 is anything but regular. Back to school shopping is now for masks and students instead are settling into the new normal of online classes and virtual classrooms.

While some schools and universities are approaching a hybrid situation, for the most part classes are going to be online, and we might have to be staring at our screens for a while at least.

As a college student myself (and especially an international student), I am grateful for online classes, but I also admit that online classes are hard. Remote learning asks for a lot of commitment, without really offering much accountability. Zoom fatigue is very real, there’s no casual conversations with your classmates before class starts to lighten up the mood, and let’s face it, studying from home is an enticing trap to most. Not to mention that not everyone has an ideal home environment for remote learning.

But as your self appointed virtual assistant – insert my best Siri impression – let me tell you some of my tips for successful remote learning. I am sure you have already heard about making a routine and taking a break from multiple articles and TikToks already, so here are some tips that no one’s telling you about; five specific ideas that have helped me with my classes:

1. Have cheat days

What is a routine if you don’t cheat it once in a while? It’s important to have a set routine, definitely, but it’s absolutely necessary to take breaks. Have a day to take a break from all your classes, set up Netflix watch parties with friends – virtually, of course – and treat yourself after an assignment or exam.

Yes, listen to those popular advice that tell you to wake up in time and go to sleep at a designated time, but is a college student a college student if they aren’t sleep deprived? It’s great to have a schedule, but it’s important to check if it’s practical, and if it’s not working, switch things up! Lessen your load – drop that class without feeling guilty about it – and mix up the activities you do in a single day.

2. Have a comfortable study space

Have a study space, yes. And make sure your study space is not your bed, yes. But a study space is no good if you have back pain from sitting in an uncomfortable chair for hours.

Make your study space pleasant and comfortable. Have a comfy chair, try to have pictures of your friends and favorite pre-pandemic activities, even places you’d like to visit after all of this is over. Have a blanket nearby, throw in a pillow for your back, make sure to stretch once in a while, and set up your space somewhere with ample light – if not, get a cute lamp! – and air. Next to a window? Perfect.

Unfortunately, not everyone has the privilege to be able to have the ideal space and we understand that. So even if it’s your kitchen table, your porch, or your basement, what matters is making the space yours. If you can, keep switching up your spaces too, as much as social distancing allows. Try to go outside and pick a spot where you can study without being in contact with too many people.

3. Diversify your tech intake

Your computer is going to be your gateway to the world for a while but not everything has to be done on the same device. If you have the means, try to use a different device to read your coursework. If you can, print your readings and mark them up. Take physical notes (you know what they say about writing things down and retention rates), doodle on them, and write funny comments.

If you can, get physical textbooks, and if you cannot, get audiobooks! Last year I started to purchase audiobook versions of textbooks, and I swear it was life changing. Apps like Audible give you the option to change speed, book mark, or “clip” sections, and some books on Amazon give you the option to both read and listen to it at the same time!

4. Accountability is key

One of the biggest setbacks of online classes is that there’s less pressure on accountability so it’s necessary to set up ways to keep yourself on track.

If you have zoom classes, keep your video on, participate as you would during a regular class. Keep your phone aside, and if you need a little extra help to reign the temptation to check you phone every once in a while, try productivity apps that require you to keep you phone locked for a designated time period. (My go to is FOREST, the app grows a plant when you are productive, and the graphics are so cute).

If you usually study with friends, set up zoom study dates, or share your deadlines so you can keep each other accountable. A planner is a godsend at this time, so use a paper planner or keep track of deadlines through an app or your phone calendar.

5. Ask for help

I’ll repeat once again: online classes are HARD, and your professors know this. Do not hesitate to ask help, whether it’s clarification questions, extension for deadlines, or help with an assignment. Try to reach out to your professor – especially if you don’t know them – and introduce yourself through email or video call and create a relationship so they know you.

Of course don’t unload all your dirty laundry on a teacher, but explain your situation. Chances are they are going to be understanding. Remember that this is an uncertain time for everybody, and you are so brave and smart for even being able to study during the chaotic timeline we are in.

Those are the tips that work for me personally, but hey we all learn differently! In the end, all that matters is that you should practice self care, and be kind to and proud of yourself. This is going to be a strange semester, but you’ve got this, and let’s conquer those online classes from Zoom University together.

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Editor's Picks World News The World

The new National Education Policy is India’s latest oppressive strike

On July 29, the Indian government revealed the new National Education Policy (NEP), a piece of legislation that claims to revolutionize education across the country. The policy, which was passed without any discussion or consultation, is the subject of both enthusiastic praise and intense criticism from politicians, educators, and citizens across the country. 

The detailed 60-page document outlines several extreme, nationwide changes to education, but is also full of vague and confusing language. There are many points to this document, but there are a few especially relevant issues that carry throughout the policy. 

The policy aims to make education in India more multidisciplinary, at secondary and higher levels of education. Secondary schools are expected to allow students greater flexibility when it comes to coursework, as well as offer levels of proficiency for each subject. For college students, a bachelor’s program, similar to America’s undergraduate programs, is to be implemented and preferred. The NEP also notes the inclusion of a college entrance exam, similar to the SAT, that will be offered twice a year. 

Another major goal of the NEP is multilingualism. Under this policy, the federal government aims to implement a three-language system, where every student is required to learn three languages. At least two of these languages must be Indian, with one being the student’s “mother tongue”. Other important actions mentioned in the policy include vocational internships for secondary students, a lesser emphasis on board exams, and a push towards technology use and digital integration in education.

On the surface, it’s easy to believe that the new NEP will ultimately benefit Indians. However, since it was announced, the policy has been met with extreme controversy. 

One of the most controversial points of the NEP is the push for multilingualism. It’s important to note here that India is one of the most linguistically diverse regions in the world, with 22 official languages, and hundreds more that are not as widely spoken. Though the policy does not force any state to teach a certain language, activists worry that the three language policy is a scheme to force Hindi education in classrooms. Despite the incredible linguistic diversity of India, there aren’t many educators who teach less spoken languages, nor are there resources for learning such as textbooks. Consequently, with a decent availability of Hindi teachers, the language will find its way into several classrooms across the country. 

The ruling Bharatiya Janata Party has long made their language agenda clear, with politicians such as Amit Shah pushing Hindi as a necessary language in all states. Tamil Nadu, a South Indian state with a two-language system that focuses on Tamil and English, has already rejected the NEP’s language proposal. 

The three-language proposal also means that students who may not be able to learn English in the classroom will be at a disadvantage when entering the job force. It will be marginalized groups who cannot afford outside tutoring in English who will suffer from this policy, while privileged students can easily access English language education. For many marginalized students, English is a crucial tool in an increasingly competitive workforce. By losing the opportunity to learn English, they risk serious damage to their futures.

Additionally, the policy carries insidious, nationalist tones that appear to be disguised as a form of cultural education. 

Professor G. Arunima of Jawaharlal Nehru University told me that when read closely, the nationalistic agenda of the policy becomes glaringly clear.  One very obvious way is the repeated reference to inculcating “Indian values”, present in the country from its supposedly glorious ancient past, and to be revived via this new form of education,“ she wrote to me. 

There is no expansion on what these “Indian values” are, raising concerns that the BJP will once again attempt to impose malicious nationalist ideologies. Instilling a value of Indian culture is not a bad thing, but there is a concern about what constitutes as “Indian values”. Given the BJP’s focus on pushing their Hindu nationalist agenda, this likely includes “values” that discriminate against religious, ethnic, and gender minorities. This is not a far stretch, as the BJP has already made efforts to literally change history to reflect their bigotry. 

In 2017, textbooks in the state of Rajasthan glamorized Hindu nationalists and their ideologies. It wouldn’t be surprising if the new NEP follows a similar path, which will only incite even more violence against marginalized groups. 

But perhaps the biggest concern is that it appears education in India is now becoming another cog of capitalism. Currently, a great deal of higher education, as well as a part of secondary schooling, is subsidized by the Indian government. However, with the NEP, there’s reason to fear that education will now become a tool of the elite. 

Professor G. Arunima told me that the NEP ultimately works to make education inaccessible to marginalized groups in India.  We are going in the direction of education to be paid for by loans, and in India, this will greatly hamper the poor, and all marginal groups who have benefited from subsidized education, and reservations (affirmative action),” she told me. “So clearly the elite, economic and social, will benefit the most, and all marginal groups (lower castes, Muslims, Adivasis) will be hit the hardest.”  

Education in India has always been built for upper class, upper-caste men. Lower class and lower caste students are already more likely to drop out of school in India. As education becomes more privatized and exclusive, these students will be even more affected. They will be unable to afford the steep fees of higher education.

Though the NEP faces widespread controversy, there’s no shortage of praise for it either. Especially from politicians of the BJP. Prime Minister Narendra Modi claims that the policy will emphasize creative thinking while eliminating the intense, stressful “rat race” of education today. 

As I read more and more praise for the NEP, I start to wonder whether any of it would actually uplift Indian students. When it comes to assessing the nature of the NEP, there’s no doubt that it is ultimately a tool of capitalism and marginalization. The Indian government cannot claim progress while also being enablers of oppression.

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Aww Nostalgia Standoms Books BRB Gone Viral Pop Culture

The Twilight series may be hot again, but Stephenie Meyers’ werewolves definitely aren’t

Let’s face it, lockdown has been hard on all of us.

You’ve baked all of the bread, you’ve done everything to learn a new language and now there is nothing else to do! I feel like I’m a teenager again: I can’t go out, my hair is long and I have fallen down a Twilight Saga rabbit hole.

From reading fanfiction to looking at Twilight tags on Tumblr, I’m completely lost to the world of Forks and La Push.

There’s a big difference between teenage and 22-year-old me reading these novels; the rose-tinted glasses are well and truly removed. As a politics graduate, I see the books through a completely different lens than simply a reminisced supernatural love triangle.

Not one cent was given to the tribe Stephenie Meyers exploited for her own personal gain.

The Twilight franchise is based in the state of Washington. La Push is the home of the Quileute Tribe, both in Meyer’s fictional world and in ours. In the books, the tribe is described as mainly fishermen and whalers and really secretive about their legends.

One-third of the Twilight love triangle, Jacob, is the son of the chief Billy Black, a man who hates the Cullens and even refuses to allow the Quileutes to get treatment at the hospital that Carlisle works at. Because of the vampires’ presence, some of the young guys in the tribe become shapeshifters to protect the tribe from the cold ones.

The Native American Quileute Nation’s legends are used to explain the shape-shifting nature of the tribe, but Meyer twisted them to suit her own story.

The creation myth of the Quileute people does, in fact, include men turning into wolves.

The creator, or K’wa’iti, created humans from the wolves in the forest. Meyer uses this story to prove that the Tribe was the enemy (something so often attributed to Indigenous communities).

She uses the darker-skinned Native Americans to contrast against her superwhite vampires and uses their folklore to paint them in a civilizing light. It’s not lost on many readers that this is following the narrative so often used by settler communities in North America and by introducing it into popular culture, Meyer sets a dangerous precedent.

It paints tradition and culture as being in conflict with modern education, something the Cullens do not suffer from.

Indigenous communities have suffered at the hands of the white settlers since 1492.

From the genocide to the indoctrination of ‘Western civilization’ through enforced boarding schools; centuries of culture and tradition were forcibly erased. Instead of helping to combat and support Indigenous communities, she helps in their erasure.

Now, when people think of the Quileute tribe they think of ‘Cold Ones,’ not the true creation myth or the Thunderbird.

Similar to many Indigenous reservations, the La Push reservation is in dire poverty.

Through the Twilight franchise, they received many tourists, but they visited for the wrong reasons: not to learn and honor the Quileutes, but for super hot werewolves looking like Taylor Lautner, who incidentally isn’t even Native American (yes, fine, he has ‘distant ancestry’ through his mother’s side of the family).

My point is that Stephenie Meyer made millions from the Twilight franchise. Not one cent was given to the tribe she exploited for her own personal gain.

The reservation has barely changed, unlike her bank account and personality,

Both vampires and werewolves are used to romanticize whiteness and demonize Indigenous communities.

Carlisle, the head of the Cullen family, is a well-respected and super-rich doctor, regardless of his bloodlust and endeavors to help and support people.

The wolfpack, on the other hand, all dropped out of school and cannot contribute to society in the same way. These might be small plot-necessary details, but Meyer peddles stereotypes of Indigenous peoples for the plot.

The role of the shapeshifter is seen as the most important and most honorable position, above everything, even education. The high school graduation rate for Native Americans is only 65%, with college graduation level at 9%.

There is pride in their role as protectors but the consequence is that they cannot leave the reservation or excel in their professional lives.

It paints tradition and culture as being in conflict with modern education, something the Cullens do not suffer from.

On the other hand, the werewolves are violent and short-tempered.

Even the controlled pack alpha Sam Uley injured his girlfriend Emily Young and scarred her face for the rest of his life. Edward only turned Bella out of desperation and as a mercy. The humane nature of the white vampire is contrasted with the Native aggression of Sam.

Sam is reduced to a primitive character: a sign of what love is not.

It creates a narrative of who has the capacity of civilized/refined versus savage/animalistic.

The white character can hold his thirst and protect his love no matter how hard it is. The native character scarred his love after she made him angry.

Sam is reduced to a primitive character: a sign of what love is not. Edward is celebrated and loved for his ability to hold back from killing Bella.

The comparisons between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ are blindingly clear. This resurgence of the Twilight Saga should bring with it the decolonized education about Indigenous communities and finally give the Quileute Nation the recognition they deserve.

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Editor's Picks History Forgotten History Lost in History

The world’s first author was a cool priestess with an even cooler backstory

Imagine a world where the pronoun ‘I’ isn’t used in writing.

The entire genre of narrative writing probably wouldn’t exist. Op-eds, personal essays, even music and poetry. Most of these writing styles are a product of our inner feelings and personal reflection, and are usually the styles of writing that we emotionally connect with the most.

It seems natural for this form of writing to always have existed, being so related to human opinion, but like almost everything else, it was invented by an author.

4300 years ago, in the Ancient Sumerian civilization, lived the princess of Ancient Sumr, Enheduanna.

She is history’s first known author, and she is the reason we use ‘I’ when we write.

Enheduanna was a triple threat of her time.

Her father, the king of Sumr, ruled when the old Sumerian culture and the new Akadian culture opposed each other and would often rebel against him.

Enheduanna was a triple threat of her time.

He appointed Enheduanna as high priestess, in an effort to bridge the cultural divide and bring peace to the nation.

Becoming high priestess meant that Enheduanna was able to receive an education in which she learned to read and write the languages of both opposing cultures, as well as learn how to make mathematics calculations.

[Image description: A relief of Inanna (also known as Ishtar)]
[Image description: A relief of Inanna (also known as Ishtar)]

It was with her acquired education that Enheduanna was able to unite both rebelling cultures via the 42 religious hymns she wrote, combining the mythologies of both cultures.

In those times, the form of writing used was cuneiform.

Its main purpose was for merchants and traders to communicate about their businesses over long distances – writing did not have a personal purpose, let alone a sentimental one.

So, when she began to write religious hymns and poetry, Enheduanna took the deities her hymns were dedicated to and humanized them.

In doing so she made the gods who once seemed so intangible feel emotions – happiness, sadness, anger, betrayal, love.

Her writing made the hymns emotionally relatable to read and connect with.

By playing on their emotions, she was able to appease the people of both Sumerian and Akkadian cultures, honoring their deities, bringing them together as one.

It was when she wrote her three hymns, Inninsagurra, Ninmesarra, and Inninmehusa, dedicated to deity Inanna, goddess of war and desire, that Enheduanna established a style of writing that was personal and attributable to the writer.

Thousands of years later, it’s impossible for us to imagine a world without saying ‘I’.

Inanna was known to be a powerful deity, so mighty that she transcended gender boundaries and was considered to be the very force who animated the universe.

In these poems, Enheduanna placed Inanna on a pedestal, marking her as the most important deity.

Her odes to Inanna marked the first time an author used the pronoun ‘I’ in a written text, and the first time an author describes their personal, private emotions in writing. It was the beginning of how narrative writing led to self-reflection and emotions could be recorded.

This is said to be her greatest contribution to literature.

An excerpt from one of Enheduanna's hymns to Inanna. It reads: Queen of all the ME, Radiant Light, Life-giving Woman, beloved of An (and) Urash, Hierodule of An, much bejeweled, Who loves the life-giving tiara, fit for High Priestesshood, Who grasps in (her) hand, the seven ME, My Queen, you who are the Guardian of All the Great ME, You have lifted the ME, have tied the ME to Your hands, Have gathered the ME, pressed the ME to Your breast. You have filled the land with venom, like a dragon. Vegetation ceases, when You thunder like Ishkur, You who bring down the Flood from the mountain, Supreme One, who are the Inanna of Heaven (and) Earth, Who rain flaming fire over the land, Who have been given the me by An, Queen Who Rides the Beasts, Who at the holy command of An, utters the (divine) words, Who can fathom Your great rites!
[Image description: An excerpt from one of Enheduanna’s hymns to Inanna.] Via Classical Art History

Above is an excerpt of one of Enheduanna’s dedicated hymns to Inanna. The full poem can be found here.

After the death of her father, Enheduanna was exiled in a coup, and it was when her nephew reclaimed the throne that she was reinstated as high priestess. She served as high priestess for 40 years, and after her death she was honored as a minor deity, with her poetry written, performed, and copied for over 500 years.

What Enheduanna succeeded in doing was taking the essence of emotions and translating them in a way that was able to unify two conflicting people.

She used emotion and ethos, and manipulated them in a way that began a form of writing that could connect with people’s emotions, rather than practical needs.

Know it was this Sumerian high priestess who invented it.

The creation of the written pronoun ‘I’ was the beginning of multiple perspectives being recorded.

It was the beginning of written storytelling.

So the next time you write in your private journal or read diary entries, the next time you study a soliloquy in Macbeth or read the emotional personal essays of critically acclaimed authors where the first person style is prominent, know it was this Sumerian high priestess who invented it.

Enheduanna changed history and humanity. Thousands of years later, it’s impossible for us to imagine a world without saying ‘I’.

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Editor's Picks World News The World

Yemen is in the midst of the worst humanitarian crisis we’ve seen in 100 years. Here’s how you can help.

Yemen is suffering through an onslaught of disasters – from the civil war to a health crisis. However, its humanitarian emergency is not drawing nearly enough of the attention it needs on an international stage. As a result, many people aren’t even aware of the height of the crisis and don’t understand the level of devastation in the country.

For reference, Yemen is a Middle Eastern country located on the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. Home to a vast desert expanse, the country also has coastal plains and steep mountain peaks.

Let’s start here. The civil war in Yemen began years ago, in 2015, following an Arab Spring uprising. Protests forced President Ali Abdullah Saleh to hand over his position to his second in command, Abdrabbuh Mansour Hadi. Once Hadi assumed power, he was faced with a plethora of issues including a separatist movement, corruption, famine, and unemployment. Hadi struggled to properly address all of these issues and was quickly viewed as a feeble leader.

After a while, the Houthi Rebel movement saw Hadi’s fragility as an opportunity to gain power and took control of the northern part of the country. As Hadi continued to demonstrate weakness, more and more Yemenis began to support the Houthi movement. Gradually, as support grew, the rebels gained more control of the country, including the capital of Sanaa.

Shocked at the expanding power of the rebel Houthi group, Saudi Arabia along with various Sunni Arab states began a pro-government campaign with the intention of ending Iranian influence as well as returning full power to Hadi. This coalition has since gained support from the US, France, and the UK.

Pro-government troops arrived in Yemen in 2015 and successfully drove rebel forces out from the south of Yemen. However, Houthi forces were still present in a large part of the country.

The warring intensified and by 2017, the coalition tightened their blockade in an effort to prevent weapon flow to the rebels from Iran, though the Iranian government has denied it.This consequently pushed people even deeper into food insecurity as prices skyrocketed and availability lessened. At this point, Houthis also continued operations to further take control of the capital.

The blockade has since been relaxed, but its harsh impact is still felt.

Then, in 2018, the coalition began an operation to capture the city of Hudaydah.

After several months of fighting, the opposing parties met in Sweden and came to an agreement that required them to create a prisoner exchange system, redeploy forces from Hudaydah, and address the situation in Taiz where Houthis are maintaining a siege. However, these conditions have not been met and people worry that the agreement will not be upheld. Specifically, troops have yet to be redeployed from Hudaydah, raising fears that the battle will resume.

This is an especially disturbing fear, as the port of Hudaydah is crucial to a majority of Yemen’s population. If the port is destroyed, the UN claims that it will be impossible to avoid the immense loss of life caused by famine.

The UN had hoped that the Stockholm agreement would eventually lead to the end of the civil war. Those hopes were eventually shattered, however, when fighting between Houthis and coalition-led forces escalated again in January 2020.

Since the conflict began, over three million people have been displaced and more than 24 million people are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance right now. Over half of the population does not have access to healthcare or clean water. And, as a result of the war, over 100,000 people have died.

While the violence continues to escalate, the people of Yemen are facing a number of other threats.

Yemen has been hit especially hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. As people continue to be displaced due to the violence, they become more vulnerable to the virus. While there have been 941 confirmed cases, it is believed that the number of cases is much higher than the reported number due to limited testing.

Simultaneously, Yemenis are also currently facing the largest cholera epidemic on record. Since the epidemic started in 2017 there have been an estimated 2.3 million cases of cholera. It’s believed that the epidemic was severely intensified by the effects of the civil war, including food and economic instability.

As the conflict continues to worsen and exacerbate the effects of both the pandemic and epidemic, it’s imperative we do our part. Here’s what you can do to help.


A large percentage of people in Yemen are unable to access necessary resources such as healthcare and food. Donating is an important form of charity that helps organizations provide people with resources. Listed here are just a few charitable groups that are dedicated to supporting the people in Yemen.

Save the children: Save the Children is an organization dedicated to providing humanitarian aid to children. They have had a presence in Yemen since 1963, providing children with healthcare assistance as well as providing parents with resources for their children’s welfare.

Islamic Relief Worldwide: Islamic Relief Worldwide is an organization at the frontlines of the Yemen crisis, with offices established throughout the country. For 20 years, they have provided treatment for malnutrition, access to sanitation and hygiene products, access to clean water, and are now working with the World Food Programme to distribute food across the country.

Project Hope: Project Hope is working with three other organizations, MedGlobal, Pure Hands and United Mission for Relief and Development, and is currently working to provide Yemenis with food, medical supplies, and medical services. In the long term, they intend to provide Yemenis with sustainable health programs so they can support themselves.

Sign petitions

There are several petitions circulating online that are centered on the Yemen crisis as well as specific issues such as the famine and COVID-19. Here are a few you can sign. has a number of petitions including the ones listed below.
Stop the war and end the famine in Yemen
Famine/Genocide in Yemen
Amnesty International: Stop the flow of weapons to Yemen
End Hunger in Yemen

Continue to educate yourself

Due to the complicated political situation in Yemen, many people are not aware of the history and current state of the country. However, as the situation worsens it’s important you take initiative and read up about what’s happening. That means familiarizing yourself with the background of the crisis as well as understanding how people are suffering today. Building on that, when you encounter someone who is either unaware of what’s happening, or apathetic to the situation, spread your knowledge. Increasing awareness of the crisis in Yemen is a crucial action that makes a difference even on an individual basis.

Over the years since the civil war began in Yemen, we’ve ignored the crisis and in our ignorance, tens of millions of people have suffered, and continue to today. We cannot allow the worst humanitarian crisis we’ve encountered in 100 years to be left unaddressed, especially as Western powers continue to contribute to the violence. We must not remain silent. Now is the time to take action.

The action steps mentioned above are not an exhaustive list. For more resources, take a look at the link below.

Yemen Humanitarian Crisis Explained + How to Help